SECOND REGULAR SESSION

HOUSE BILL NO. 1799

95TH GENERAL ASSEMBLY


 

 

INTRODUCED BY REPRESENTATIVES COX (Sponsor), STEVENSON, MUNZLINGER AND SATER (Co-sponsors).

4533L.02I                                                                                                                                                  D. ADAM CRUMBLISS, Chief Clerk


 

AN ACT

To repeal sections 454.850, 454.853, 454.855, 454.857, 454.860, 454.862, 454.865, 454.867, 454.869, 454.871, 454.874, 454.877, 454.880, 454.882, 454.885, 454.887, 454.890, 454.892, 454.895, 454.897, 454.900, 454.902, 454.905, 454.907, 454.910, 454.912, 454.915, 454.917, 454.920, 454.922, 454.927, 454.930, 454.932, 454.934, 454.936, 454.938, 454.941, 454.943, 454.946, 454.948, 454.951, 454.953, 454.956, 454.958, 454.961, 454.963, 454.966, 454.968, 454.971, 454.973, 454.976, 454.978, 454.981, 454.983, 454.986, 454.989, 454.991, 454.993, 454.995, and 454.999, RSMo, and to enact in lieu thereof seventy-eight new sections relating to the uniform interstate family support act, with a contingent effective date.




Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the state of Missouri, as follows:


            Section A. Sections 454.850, 454.853, 454.855, 454.857, 454.860, 454.862, 454.865, 454.867, 454.869, 454.871, 454.874, 454.877, 454.880, 454.882, 454.885, 454.887, 454.890, 454.892, 454.895, 454.897, 454.900, 454.902, 454.905, 454.907, 454.910, 454.912, 454.915, 454.917, 454.920, 454.922, 454.927, 454.930, 454.932, 454.934, 454.936, 454.938, 454.941, 454.943, 454.946, 454.948, 454.951, 454.953, 454.956, 454.958, 454.961, 454.963, 454.966, 454.968, 454.971, 454.973, 454.976, 454.978, 454.981, 454.983, 454.986, 454.989, 454.991, 454.993, 454.995, and 454.999, RSMo, are repealed and seventy-eight new sections enacted in lieu thereof, to be known as sections 454.1500, 454.1503, 454.1506, 454.1509, 454.1512, 454.1515, 454.1518, 454.1521, 454.1524, 454.1527, 454.1530, 454.1533, 454.1536, 454.1539, 454.1542, 454.1545, 454.1548, 454.1551, 454.1554, 454.1557, 454.1560, 454.1563, 454.1566, 454.1569, 454.1572, 454.1575, 454.1578, 454.1581, 454.1584, 454.1587, 454.1590, 454.1593, 454.1596, 454.1599, 454.1602, 454.1605, 454.1608, 454.1611, 454.1614, 454.1617, 454.1620, 454.1623, 454.1626, 454.1629, 454.1632, 454.1635, 454.1638, 454.1641, 454.1644, 454.1647, 454.1650, 454.1653, 454.1656, 454.1659, 454.1662, 454.1665, 454.1668, 454.1671, 454.1674, 454.1677, 454.1680, 454.1683, 454.1686, 454.1689, 454.1692, 454.1695, 454.1698, 454.1701, 454.1704, 454.1707, 454.1710, 454.1713, 454.1716, 454.1719, 454.1722, 454.1725, 454.1728, and 454.1730, to read as follows:

ARTICLE 1

GENERAL PROVISIONS

            454.1500. This act, sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, may be cited as the Uniform Interstate Family Support Act.

            454.1503. In this act, sections 454.1500 to 454.1730:

            (1) "Child" means an individual, whether over or under the age of majority, who is or is alleged to be owed a duty of support by the individual's parent or who is or is alleged to be the beneficiary of a support order directed to the parent.

            (2) "Child support order" means a support order for a child, including a child who has attained the age of majority under the law of the issuing state or foreign country.

            (3) "Convention" means the Convention on the International Recovery of Child Support and Other Forms of Family Maintenance, concluded at The Hague on November 23, 2007.

            (4) "Duty of support" means an obligation imposed or imposable by law to provide support for a child, spouse, or former spouse, including an unsatisfied obligation to provide support.

            (5) "Foreign country" means a country, including a political subdivision thereof, other than the United States, that authorizes the issuance of support orders and:

            (A) which has been declared under the law of the United States to be a foreign reciprocating country;

            (B) which has established a reciprocal arrangement for child support with this state as provided in section 454.1607;

            (C) which has enacted a law or established procedures for the issuance and enforcement of support orders which are substantially similar to the procedures under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730; or

            (D) in which the Convention is in force with respect to the United States.

            (6) "Foreign support order" means a support order of a foreign tribunal.

            (7) "Foreign tribunal" means a court, administrative agency, or quasi-judicial entity of a foreign country which is authorized to establish, enforce, or modify support orders or to determine parentage of a child. The term includes a competent authority under the Convention.

            (8) "Home state" means the state or foreign country in which a child lived with a parent or a person acting as parent for at least six consecutive months immediately preceding the time of filing of a petition or comparable pleading for support and, if a child is less than six months old, the state or foreign country in which the child lived from birth with any of them. A period of temporary absence of any of them is counted as part of the six-month or other period.

            (9) "Income" includes earnings or other periodic entitlements to money from any source and any other property subject to withholding for support under the law of this state.

            (10) "Income-withholding order" means an order or other legal process directed to an obligor's employer or other debtor, as defined by section 452.350 or 454.505, to withhold support from the income of the obligor.

            (11) "Initiating tribunal" means the tribunal of a state or foreign country from which a petition or comparable pleading is forwarded or in which a petition or comparable pleading is filed for forwarding to another state or foreign country.

            (12) "Issuing foreign country" means the foreign country in which a tribunal issues a support order or a judgment determining parentage of a child.

            (13) "Issuing state" means the state in which a tribunal issues a support order or a judgment determining parentage of a child.

            (14) "Issuing tribunal" means the tribunal of a state or foreign country that issues a support order or a judgment determining parentage of a child.

            (15) "Law" includes decisional and statutory law and rules and regulations having the force of law.

            (16) "Obligee" means:

            (A) an individual to whom a duty of support is or is alleged to be owed or in whose favor a support order or a judgment determining parentage of a child has been issued;

            (B) a foreign country, state, or political subdivision of a state to which the rights under a duty of support or support order have been assigned or which has independent claims based on financial assistance provided to an individual obligee in place of child support;

            (C) an individual seeking a judgment determining parentage of the individual's child; or

            (D) a person that is a creditor in a proceeding under Article 7, sections 454.1680 to 454.1716.

            (17) "Obligor" means an individual, or the estate of a decedent that:

            (A) owes or is alleged to owe a duty of support;

            (B) is alleged but has not been adjudicated to be a parent of a child;

            (C) is liable under a support order; or

            (D) is a debtor in a proceeding under Article 7, sections 454.1680 to 454.1716.

            (18) "Outside this state" means a location in another state or a country other than the United States, whether or not the country is a foreign country.

            (19) "Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, public corporation, government or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity.

            (20) "Record" means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.

            (21) "Register" means to record or file a support order or judgment determining parentage of a child issued in another state or a foreign country.

            (22) "Registering tribunal" means a tribunal in which a support order or judgment determining parentage of a child is registered.

            (23) "Responding state" means a state in which a petition or comparable pleading for support or to determine parentage of a child is filed or to which a petition or comparable pleading is forwarded for filing from another state or a foreign country.

            (24) "Responding tribunal" means the authorized tribunal in a responding state or foreign country.

            (25) "Spousal support order" means a support order for a spouse or former spouse of the obligor.

            (26) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands or any territory or insular possession under the jurisdiction of the United States. The term "state" includes an Indian nation or tribe.

            (27) "Support enforcement agency" means a public official, governmental entity, or private agency authorized to:

            (A) seek enforcement of support orders or laws relating to the duty of support;

            (B) seek establishment or modification of child support;

            (C) request determination of parentage of a child;

            (D) attempt to locate obligors or their assets; or

            (E) Request determination of the controlling child support order.

            (28) "Support order" means a judgment, decree, order, decision, or directive, whether temporary, final, or subject to issued in a state or foreign country for the benefit of a child, a spouse, or a former spouse, which provides for monetary support, health care, arrearages, retroactive support, or reimbursement for financial assistance provided to an individual obligee in place of child support. The term may include related costs and fees, interest, income withholding, automatic adjustment, reasonable attorney's fees, and other relief.

            (29) "Tribunal" means a court, administrative agency, or quasi-judicial entity authorized to establish, enforce, or modify support orders or to determine parentage of a child.

            454.1506. (a) The courts and the department of social services are the tribunals of this state.

            (b) The attorney general and department of social services are the support enforcement agencies of this state.

            454.1509. (a) Remedies provided by sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 are cumulative and do not affect the availability of remedies under other law or the recognition of a foreign support order on the basis of comity.

            (b) Sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 do not:

            (1) provide the exclusive method of establishing or enforcing a support order under the law of this state; or

            (2) grant a tribunal of this state jurisdiction to render judgment or issue an order relating to child custody or visitation in a proceeding under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730.

            454.1512. (a) A tribunal of this state shall apply Articles 1 to 6, sections 454.1500 to 454.1677, and, as applicable, Article 7, sections 454.1680 to 454.1716, to a support proceeding involving:

            (1) a foreign support order;

            (2) a foreign tribunal; or

            (3) an obligee, obligor, or child residing in a foreign country.

            (b) A tribunal of this state that is requested to recognize and enforce a support order on the basis of comity may apply the procedural and substantive provision of Articles 1 to 6, sections 454.1500 to 454.1677.

            (c) Article 7, sections 454.1680 to 454.1716, apply only to support proceedings under the Convention. In such a proceeding, if a provision of Article 7, sections 454.1680 to 454.1716, is inconsistent with Articles 1 to 6, sections 454.1500 to 454.1677, Article 7, sections 454.1680 to 454.1716, controls.

ARTICLE 2

JURISDICTION

            454.1515. (a) In a proceeding to establish, enforce, or modify a support order or to determine parentage of a child, a tribunal of this state may exercise personal jurisdiction over a nonresident individual or the individual's guardian or conservator if:

            (1) the individual is personally served with notice within this state;

            (2) the individual submits to the jurisdiction of this state by consent, by entering a general appearance, or by filing a responsive document having the effect of waiving any contest to personal jurisdiction;

            (3) the individual resided with the child in this state;

            (4) the individual resided in this state and provided prenatal expenses or support for the child;

            (5) the child resides in this state as a result of the acts or directives of the individual;

            (6) the individual engaged in sexual intercourse in this state and the child may have been conceived by that act of intercourse;

            (7) the individual asserted parentage in the putative father registry maintained in this state by the department of health and senior services; or

            (8) there is any other basis consistent with the constitutions of this state and the United States for the exercise of personal jurisdiction.

            (b) The bases of personal jurisdiction set forth in subsection (a) or in any other law of this state may not be used to acquire personal jurisdiction for a tribunal of this state to modify a child support order of another state unless the requirements of section 454.1659 are met, or, in the case of a foreign support order, unless the requirements of section 454.1674 are met.

            454.1518. Personal jurisdiction acquired by a tribunal of this state in a proceeding under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 or other law of this state relating to a support order continues as long as a tribunal of this state has continuing, exclusive jurisdiction to modify its order or continuing jurisdiction to enforce its order as provided by sections 454.1527, 454.1530, and 454.1545.

            454.1521. Under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, a tribunal of this state may serve as an initiating tribunal to forward proceedings to another state and as a responding tribunal for proceedings initiated in another state or the foreign country.

            454.1524. (a) A tribunal of this state may exercise jurisdiction to establish a support order if the petition or comparable pleading is filed after a petition or comparable pleading is filed in another state or a foreign country only if:

            (1) the petition or comparable pleading in this state is filed before the expiration of the time allowed in the other state or the foreign country for filing a responsive pleading challenging the exercise of jurisdiction by the other state or the foreign country;

            (2) the contesting party timely challenges the exercise of jurisdiction in the other state or the foreign country; and

            (3) if relevant, this state is the home state of the child.

            (b) A tribunal of this state may not exercise jurisdiction to establish a support order if the petition or comparable pleading is filed before a petition or comparable pleading is filed in another state or a foreign country if:

            (1) the petition or comparable pleading in the other state or foreign country is filed before the expiration of the time allowed in this state for filing a responsive pleading challenging the exercise of jurisdiction by this state;

            (2) the contesting party timely challenges the exercise of jurisdiction in this state; and

            (3) if relevant, the other state is the home state of the child.

            454.1527. (a) A tribunal of this state that has issued a child support order consistent with the law of this state has and shall exercise continuing, exclusive jurisdiction to modify its child support order if the order is the controlling order: and

            (1) at the time of filing of a request for modification this state is the residence of the obligor, the individual obligee, or the child for whose benefit the support order is issued; or

            (2) even if this state is not the residence of the obligor, the individual obligee, or the child for whose benefit the support order is issued, the parties consent in a record or in open court that the tribunal of this state may continue to exercise jurisdiction to modify its order.

            (b) A tribunal of this state that has issued a child support order consistent with the law of this state may not exercise continuing, exclusive jurisdiction to modify the order if:

            (1) all of the parties who are individuals file consent in a record with the tribunal of this state that a tribunal of another state that has jurisdiction over at least one of the parties who is an individual or that is located in the state of residence of the child may modify the order and assume continuing, exclusive jurisdiction; or

            (2) its order is not the controlling order.

            (c) If a tribunal of another state has issued a child support order pursuant to sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 or a law substantially similar to sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 which modifies a child support order of a tribunal of this state, tribunals of this state shall recognize the continuing, exclusive jurisdiction of the tribunal of the other state.

            (d) A tribunal of this state that lacks continuing, exclusive jurisdiction to modify a child support order may serve as an initiating tribunal to request a tribunal of another state to modify a support order issued in that state.

            (e) A temporary support order issued ex parte or pending resolution of a jurisdictional conflict does not create continuing, exclusive jurisdiction in the issuing tribunal.

            454.1530. (a) A tribunal of this state that has issued a child support order consistent with the law of this state may serve as an initiating tribunal to request a tribunal of another state to enforce:

            (1) the order if the order is the controlling order and has not been modified by a tribunal of another state that assumed jurisdiction pursuant to sections 454.1500 to 454.1730; or

            (2) a money judgment for arrears of support and interest on the order accrued before a determination that an order of a tribunal of another state is the controlling order.

            (b) A tribunal of this state having continuing jurisdiction over a support order may act as a responding tribunal to enforce the order.

            454.1533. (a) If a proceeding is brought under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, and only one tribunal has issued a child support order, the order of that tribunal is controlling and must be recognized.

            (b) If a proceeding is brought under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, and two or more child support orders have been issued by tribunals of this state, another state, or a foreign country with regard to the same obligor and child, a tribunal of this state having personal jurisdiction over both the obligor and individual obligee shall apply the following rules and by order shall determine which order controls and must be recognized:

            (1) If only one of the tribunals would have continuing, exclusive jurisdiction under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, the order of that tribunal controls.

            (2) If more than one of the tribunals would have continuing, exclusive jurisdiction under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730:

            (A) an order issued by a tribunal in the current home state of the child controls; or

            (b) if an order has not been issued in the current home state of the child, the order most recently issued controls.

            (3) If none of the tribunals would have continuing, exclusive jurisdiction under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, the tribunal of this state shall issue a child support order, which controls.

            (c) If two or more child support orders have been issued for the same obligor and same child, upon request of a party who is an individual or that is a support enforcement agency, a tribunal of this state having personal jurisdiction over both the obligor and the obligee who is an individual shall determine which order controls under subsection (b). The request may be filed with a registration for enforcement or registration for modification pursuant to Article 6, sections 454.1632 to 454.1677, or may be filed as a separate proceeding.

            (d) A request to determine which is the controlling order must be accompanied by a copy of every child support order in effect and the applicable record of payments. The requesting party shall give notice of the request to each party whose rights may be affected by the determination.

            (e) The tribunal that issued the controlling order under subsections (a), (b), or (c) has continuing jurisdiction to the extent provided in section 454.1527 or 454.1530.

            (f) A tribunal of this state that determines by order which is the controlling order under subsection (b)(1) or (2) or (c), or that issues a new controlling order under subsection (b)(3), shall state in that order:

            (1) the basis upon which the tribunal made its determination;

            (2) the amount of prospective support, if any; and

            (3) the total amount of consolidated arrears and accrued interest, if any, under all of the orders after all payments made are credited as provided by section 454.1539.

            (g) Within thirty days after issuance of an order determining which is the controlling order, the party obtaining that order shall file a certified copy of it with each tribunal that issued or registered an earlier order of child support. A party or support enforcement agency obtaining the order that fails to file a certified copy is subject to appropriate sanctions by a tribunal in which the issue of failure to file arises. The failure to file does not affect the validity or enforceability of the controlling order.

            (h) An order that has been determined to be the controlling order, or a judgment for consolidated arrears of support and interest, if any, made pursuant to this section must be recognized in proceedings under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730.

            454.1536. In responding to multiple registrations or petitions for enforcement of two or more child support orders in effect at the same time with regard to the same obligor and different individual obligees, at least one of which was issued by a tribunal of another state or a foreign country, a tribunal of this state shall enforce those orders in the same manner as if the multiple orders had been issued by a tribunal of this state.

            454.1539. A tribunal of this state shall credit amounts collected for a particular period pursuant to any support order against the amounts owed for the same period under any other support order for support of the same child issued by a tribunal of this state, another state, or a foreign country.

            454.1542. A tribunal of this state exercising personal jurisdiction over a nonresident in a proceeding under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, under other law of this state relating to a support order, or recognizing a foreign support order may receive evidence from outside this state pursuant to section 454.1590, communicate with a tribunal outside this state pursuant to section 454.1593, and obtain discovery through a tribunal outside this state pursuant to section 454.1596. In all other respects, Article 3 through 6, sections 454.1548 to 454.1677, do not apply, and the tribunal shall apply the procedural and substantive law of this state.

            454.1545. (a) A tribunal of this state issuing a spousal support order consistent with the law of this state has continuing, exclusive jurisdiction to modify the spousal support order throughout the existence of the support obligation.

            (b) A tribunal of this state may not modify a spousal support order issued by a tribunal of another state or a foreign country having continuing, exclusive jurisdiction over that order under the law of that state or foreign country.

            (c) A tribunal of this state that has continuing, exclusive jurisdiction over a spousal support order may serve as:

            (1) an initiating tribunal to request a tribunal of another state to enforce the spousal order issued in this state; or

            (2) a responding tribunal to enforce or modify its own spousal support order.

ARTICLE 3

CIVIL PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION

            454.1548. (a) Except as otherwise provided in sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, this article, sections 454.1548 to 454.1602, applies to all proceedings under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730.

            (b) An individual petitioner or a support enforcement agency may initiate a proceeding authorized under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 by filing a petition in an initiating tribunal for forwarding to a responding tribunal or by filing a petition or a comparable pleading directly in a tribunal of another state or foreign country which has or can obtain personal jurisdiction over the respondent.

            454.1551. A minor parent, or a guardian or other legal representative of a minor parent, may maintain a proceeding on behalf of or for the benefit of the minor's child.

            454.1554. Except as otherwise provided by sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, a responding tribunal of this state shall:

            (1) apply the procedural and substantive law, generally applicable to similar proceedings originating in this state and may exercise all powers and provide all remedies available in those proceedings; and

            (2) determine the duty of support and the amount payable in accordance with the law and support guidelines of this state.

            454.1557. (a) Upon the filing of a petition authorized by sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, an initiating tribunal of this state shall forward the petition and its accompanying documents:

            (1) to the responding tribunal or appropriate support enforcement agency in the responding state; or

            (2) if the identity of the responding tribunal is unknown, to the state information agency of the responding state with a request that they be forwarded to the appropriate tribunal and that receipt be acknowledged.

            (b) If requested by a responding state, a tribunal of this state shall issue a certificate or other documents and make findings required by the law of the responding state. If the responding tribunal is in a foreign country, upon request the tribunal of this state shall specify the amount of support sought, convert that amount into the equivalent amount in the foreign currency under applicable official or market exchange rate as publicly reported, and provide any other documents necessary to satisfy the requirements of the responding foreign tribunal.

            454.1560. (a) When a responding tribunal of this state receives a petition or comparable pleading from an initiating tribunal or directly pursuant to subsection (c) of section 454.1548, it shall cause the petition or pleading to be filed and notify the petitioner where and when it was filed.

            (b) A responding tribunal of this state, to the extent not prohibited by other law, may do one or more of the following:

            (1) establish or enforce a support order, modify a child support order, determine the controlling child support order, or determine parentage of the child;

            (2) order an obligor to comply with a support order, specifying the amount and the manner of compliance;

            (3) order income withholding;

            (4) determine the amount of any arrearages, and specify a method of payment;

            (5) enforce orders by civil or criminal contempt, or both;

            (6) set aside property for satisfaction of the support order;

            (7) place liens and order execution on the obligor's property;

            (8) order an obligor to keep the tribunal informed of the obligor's current residential address, electronic mail address, telephone number, employer, address of employment, and telephone number at the place of employment;

            (9) issue a bench warrant for an obligor who has failed after proper notice to appear at a hearing ordered by the tribunal and enter the bench warrant in any local and state computer systems for criminal warrants;

            (10) order the obligor to seek appropriate employment by specified methods;

            (11) award reasonable attorney's fees and other fees and costs; and

            (12) grant any other available remedy.

            (c) A responding tribunal of this state shall include a support order issued under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, or in the documents accompanying the order, the calculations on which the support order is based.

            (d) A responding tribunal of this state may not condition the payment of a support order issued under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 upon compliance by a party with provisions for visitation.

            (e) If a responding tribunal of this state issues an order under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, the tribunal shall send a copy of the order to the petitioner and the respondent and to the initiating tribunal, if any.

            (f) If requested to enforce a support order, arrears, or judgment or modify a support order stated in a foreign currency, a responding tribunal of this state shall convert the amount stated in the foreign currency to the equivalent amount in dollars under the applicable official or market exchange rate as publicly reported.

            454.1563. If a petition or comparable pleading is received by an inappropriate tribunal of this state, the tribunal shall forward the pleading and accompanying documents to an appropriate tribunal of this state or another state and notify the petitioner where and when the pleading was sent.

            454.1566. (a) A support enforcement agency of this state, upon request, shall provide services to a petitioner in a proceeding under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730.

            (b) A support enforcement agency of this state that is providing services to the petitioner as appropriate shall:

            (1) take all steps necessary to enable an appropriate tribunal in this state, another state, or a foreign country to obtain jurisdiction over the respondent;

            (2) request an appropriate tribunal to set a date, time, and place for a hearing;

            (3) make a reasonable effort to obtain all relevant information, including information as to income and property of the parties;

            (4) within two days, exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays, after receipt of a written notice from an initiating, responding, or registering tribunal, send a copy of the notice to the petitioner;

            (5) within two days, exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays, after receipt of communication in a record from the respondent or the respondent's attorney, send a copy of the communication to the petitioner; and

            (6) notify the petitioner if jurisdiction over the respondent cannot be obtained.

            (c) A support enforcement agency of this state that requests registration of a child support order in this state for enforcement or for modification shall make reasonable efforts:

            (1) to ensure that the order to be registered is the controlling order; or

            (2) if two or more child support orders exist and the identity of the controlling order has not been determined, to ensure that a request for such a determination is made in a tribunal having jurisdiction to do so.

            (d) A support enforcement agency of this state that requests registration and enforcement of a support order, arrears, or judgment stated in a foreign currency shall convert the amounts stated in the foreign currency into the equivalent amounts in dollars under the applicable official or market exchange rate as publicly reported.

            (e) A support enforcement agency of this state shall issue or request a tribunal of this state to issue a child support order and an income withholding order that redirect payment of current support, arrears, and interest if requested to do so by a support enforcement agency of another state pursuant to section 454.1602.

            (f) Sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 do not create or negate a relationship of attorney and client or other fiduciary relationship between a support enforcement agency or the attorney for the agency and the individual being assisted by the agency.

            454.1569. (a) If the attorney general determines that the support enforcement agency is neglecting or refusing to provide services to an individual, the attorney general may order the agency to perform its duties under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 or may provide those services directly to the individual.

            (b) The attorney general may determine that a foreign country has established a reciprocal arrangement for child support with this state and take appropriate action for notification of the determination.

            454.1572. An individual may employ private counsel to represent the individual in proceedings authorized by sections 454.1500 to 454.1730.

            454.1575. (a) The family support division within the department of social services is the state information agency under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730.

            (b) The state information agency shall:

            (1) compile and maintain a current list, including addresses, of the tribunals in this state which have jurisdiction under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 and any support enforcement agencies in this state and transmit a copy to the state information agency of every other state;

            (2) maintain a register of names and address of tribunals and support enforcement agencies received from other states;

            (3) forward to the appropriate tribunal in the county in this state in which the individual obligee or the obligor resides, or in which the obligor's property is believed to be located, all documents concerning a proceeding under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 received from another state or foreign country; and

            (4) obtain information concerning the location of the obligor and the obligor's property within this state not exempt from execution, by such means as postal verification and federal or state locator services, examination of telephone directories, requests for the obligor's address from employers, and examination of governmental records, including, to the extent not prohibited by other law, those relating to real property, vital statistics, law enforcement, taxation, motor vehicles, driver's licenses, and Social Security.

            454.1578. (a) In a proceeding under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, a petitioner seeking to establish a support order, to determine parentage of a child, or to register and modify a support order of a tribunal of another state or a foreign country must file a petition. Unless otherwise ordered under section 454.1581, the petition or accompanying documents must provide, so far as known, the name, residential address, and Social Security numbers of the obligor and the obligee or the parent and alleged parent, and the name, sex, residential address, Social Security number, and date of birth of each child for whom support is sought or whose parentage is to be determined. Unless filed at the time of registration, the petition must be accompanied by a certified copy of any support order known to have been issued by another tribunal. The petition may include any other information that may assist in locating or identifying the respondent.

            (b) The petition must specify the relief sought. The petition and accompanying documents must conform substantially with the requirements imposed by the forms mandated by federal law for use in cases filed by a support enforcement agency.

            454.1581. If a party alleges in an affidavit or a pleading under oath that the health, safety, or liberty of a party or child would be jeopardized by disclosure of specific identifying information, that information must be sealed and may not be disclosed to the other party or the public. After a hearing in which a tribunal takes into consideration the health, safety, or liberty of the party or child, the tribunal may order disclosure of information that the tribunal determines to be in the interest of justice.

            454.1584. (a) The petitioner may not be required to pay a filing fee or other costs.

            (b) If an obligee prevails, a responding tribunal of this state may assess against an obligor filing fees, reasonable attorney's fees, other costs, and necessary travel and other reasonable expenses incurred by the obligee and the obligee's witnesses. The tribunal may not assess fees, costs, or expenses against the obligee or the support enforcement agency of either the initiating or the responding state or foreign country, except as provided by other law. Attorney's fees may be taxed as costs, and may be ordered paid directly to the attorney, who may enforce the order in the attorney's own name. Payment of support owed to the obligee has priority over fees, costs and expenses.

            (c) The tribunal shall order the payment of costs and reasonable attorney's fees if it determines that a hearing was requested primarily for delay. In a proceeding under Article 6, sections 454.1632 to 454.1677, a hearing is presumed to have been requested primarily for delay if a registered support order is confirmed or enforced without change.

            454.1587. (a) Participation by a petitioner in a proceeding under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 before a responding tribunal, whether in person, by private attorney, or through services provided by the support enforcement agency, does not confer personal jurisdiction over the petitioner in another proceeding.

            (b) A petitioner is not amenable to service of civil process while physically present in this state to participate in a proceeding under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730.

            (c) The immunity granted by this section does not extend to civil litigation based on acts unrelated to a proceeding under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 committed by a party while present in this state to participate in the proceeding.

            454.1590. A party whose parentage of a child has been previously determined by or pursuant to law may not plead nonparentage as a defense to a proceeding under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730.

            454.1593. (a) The physical presence of a nonresident party who is an individual in a tribunal of this state is not required for the establishment, enforcement, or modification of a support order or the rendition of a judgment determining parentage of a child.

            (b) An affidavit, a document substantially complying with federally mandated forms, or a document incorporated by reference in any of them, which would not be excluded under the hearsay rule if given in person, is admissible in evidence if given under oath by a party or witness residing outside this state.

            (c) A copy of the record of child support payments certified as a true copy of the original by the custodian of the record may be forwarded to a responding tribunal. The copy is evidence of facts asserted in it, and is admissible to show whether payments were made.

            (d) Copies of bills for testing for parentage of a child, and for prenatal and postnatal health care of the mother and child, furnished to the adverse party at least ten days before trial, are admissible in evidence to prove the amount of the charges billed and that the charges were reasonable, necessary, and customary.

            (e) Documentary evidence transmitted outside this state to a tribunal of this state by telephone, telecopier, or other electronic means that do not provide an original record may not be excluded from evidence on an objection based on the means of transmission.

            (f) In a proceeding under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, a tribunal of this state may permit a party or witness residing outside this state to be deposed or to testify under penalty of perjury by telephone, audiovisual means, or other electronic means at a designated tribunal or other location. A tribunal of this state shall cooperate with other tribunals in designating an appropriate location for the deposition or testimony.

            (g) If a party called to testify at a civil hearing refuses to answer on the ground that the testimony may be self-incriminating, the trier of fact may draw an adverse inference from the refusal.

            (h) A privilege against disclosure of communications between spouses does not apply in a proceeding under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730.

            (i) The defense of immunity based on the relationship of husband and wife or parent and child does not apply in a proceeding under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730.

            (j) A voluntary acknowledgment of paternity, certified as a true copy, is admissible to establish parentage of the child.

            454.1596. A tribunal of this state may communicate with a tribunal outside this state in a record, or by telephone, electronic mail, or other means, to obtain information concerning the laws, the legal effect of a judgment, decree, or order of that tribunal, and the status of a proceeding. A tribunal of this state may furnish similar information by similar means to a tribunal outside this state.

            454.1599. A tribunal of this state may:

            (1) request a tribunal outside this state to assist in obtaining discovery; and

            (2) upon request, compel a person over which it has jurisdiction to respond to a discovery order issued by a tribunal outside this state.

            454.1602. (a) A support enforcement agency or tribunal of this state shall disburse promptly any amounts received pursuant to a support order, as directed by the order. The agency or tribunal shall furnish to a requesting party or tribunal of another state or a foreign country a certified statement by the custodian of the record of the amounts and dates of all payments received.

            (b) If neither the obligor, nor the obligee who is an individual, nor the child resides in this state, upon request from the support enforcement agency of this state or another state, a tribunal of this state shall:

            (1) direct that the support payment be made to the support enforcement agency in the state in which the obligee is receiving services; and

            (2) issue and send to the obligor's employer income withholding order or an administrative notice of change of payee, reflecting the redirected payments.

            (c) The support enforcement agency of this state receiving redirected payments from another state pursuant to a law similar to subsection (b) shall furnish to a requesting party or tribunal of the other state a certified statement by the custodian of the record of the amount and dates of all payments received.

ARTICLE 4

ESTABLISHMENT OF SUPPORT ORDER OR DETERMINATION OF PARENTAGE

            454.1605. (a) If a support order entitled to recognition under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 has not been issued, a responding tribunal of this state with personal jurisdiction over the parties may issue a support order if:

            (1) the individual seeking the order resides outside this state; or

            (2) the support enforcement agency seeking the order is located outside this state.

            (b) The tribunal may issue a temporary child support order if the tribunal determines that such an order is appropriate and the individual ordered to pay is:

            (1) a presumed father of the child;

            (2) petitioning to have his paternity adjudicated;

            (3) identified as the father of the child through genetic testing;

            (4) an alleged father who has declined to submit to genetic testing;

            (5) shown by clear and convincing evidence to be the father of the child;

            (6) an acknowledged father as provided under section 192.016;

            (7) the mother of the child; or

            (8) an individual who has been ordered to pay child support in a previous proceeding and the order has not been reversed or vacated.

            (c) Upon finding, after notice and opportunity to be heard, that an obligor owes a duty of support, the tribunal shall issue a support order directed to the obligor and may issue other orders pursuant to section 454.1560.

            454.1608. A tribunal of this state authorized to determine parentage of a child may serve as a responding tribunal in a proceeding to determine parentage of a child brought under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 or a law or procedure substantially similar to sections 454.1500 to 454.1730.

ARTICLE 5

ENFORCEMENT OF SUPPORT ORDER WITHOUT REGISTRATION

            454.1611. An income withholding order issued in another state may be sent by or on behalf of the obligee, or by the support enforcement agency, to the person defined as the obligor's employer under section 452.350 or 454.505 without first filing a petition or comparable pleading or registering the order with a tribunal of this state.

            454.1614. (a) Upon receipt of an income withholding order, the obligor's employer shall immediately provide a copy of the order to the obligor.

            (b) The employer shall treat an income withholding order issued in another state which appears regular on its face as if it had been issued by a tribunal of this state.

            (c) Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section and section 454.1617, the employer shall withhold and distribute the funds as directed in the withholding order by complying with the terms of the order which specify:

            (1) the duration and the amount of periodic payments of current child support, stated as a sum certain;

            (2) the person or agency designated to receive payments and the address to which the payments are to be forwarded;

            (3) medical support, whether in the form of periodic cash payment, stated as a sum certain, or ordering the obligor to provide health insurance coverage for the child under a policy available through the obligor's employment;

            (4) the amount of periodic payments of fees and costs for a support enforcement agency, the issuing tribunal, and the obligee's attorney, stated as sums certain; and

            (5) the amount of periodic payments of arrears and interest on arrears, stated as sums certain.

            (d) The employer shall comply with the law of the state of the obligor's principal place of employment for withholding from income with respect to:

            (1) the employer's fee for processing an income withholding order;

            (2) the maximum amount permitted to be withheld from the obligor's income; and

            (3) the times within which the employer must implement the withholding order and forward the child support payment.

            454.1617. If the obligor's employer receives two or more income withholding orders with respect to the earnings of the same obligor, the employer shall be deemed to have satisfied the terms of the orders if the employer complies with the law of the state of the obligor's principal place of employment to establish the priorities for withholding and allocating income withheld for two or more child support orders.

            454.1620. An employer that complies with an income withholding order issued in another state in accordance with sections 454.1611 to 454.1629 is not subject to civil liability to any individual or agency with regard to the employer's withholding child support from the obligor's income.

            454.1623. An employer that willfully fails to comply with an income withholding order issued in another state and received for enforcement is subject to the same penalties that may be imposed for noncompliance with an order issued by a tribunal of this state.

            454.1626. (a) An obligor may contest the validity or enforcement of an income withholding order issued in another state and received directly by an employer in this state by registering the order in a tribunal of this state and filing a contest to that order as provided in Article 6, sections 454.1632 to 454.1677, or otherwise contesting the order in the same manner as if the order had been issued by a tribunal of this state.

            (b) The obligor shall give notice of the contest to:

            (1) a support enforcement agency providing services to the obligee;

            (2) each employer which has directly received an income withholding order relating to the obligor; and

            (3) the person designated to receive payments in the income withholding order or, if no person or agency is designated, to the obligee.

            454.1629. (a) A party or support enforcement agency seeking to enforce a support order or an income withholding order, or both, issued in another state or a foreign support order may send the documents required for registering the order to a support enforcement agency of this state.

            (b) Upon receipt of the documents, the support enforcement agency, without initially seeking to register the order, shall consider and, if appropriate, use any administrative procedure authorized by the law of this state to enforce a support order or an income withholding order, or both. If the obligor does not contest administrative enforcement, the order need not be registered. If the obligor contests the validity or administrative enforcement of the order, the support enforcement agency shall register the order pursuant to sections 454.1500 to 454.1730.

ARTICLE 6

REGISTRATION, ENFORCEMENT, AND MODIFICATION OF SUPPORT ORDER

Part 1

REGISTRATION FOR ENFORCEMENT OF SUPPORT ORDER

            454.1632. A support order or an income withholding order issued in another state or a foreign support order may be registered in this state for enforcement.

            454.1635. (a) Except as otherwise provided in section 454.1695, a support order or income withholding order of another state or a foreign support order may be registered in this state by sending the following records to the appropriate tribunal in this state:

            (1) a letter of transmittal to the tribunal requesting registration and enforcement;

            (2) two copies, including one certified copy, of all orders to be registered, including any modification of an order;

            (3) a sworn statement by the person requesting registration or a certified statement by the custodian of the records showing the amount of any arrearage;

            (4) the name of the obligor and, if known:

            (A) the obligor's address and Social Security number;

            (B) the name and address of the obligor's employer and any other source of income of the obligor; and

            (C) a description and the location of property of the obligor in this state not exempt from execution; and

            (5) except as otherwise provided in section 454.1581, the name and address of the obligee and, if applicable, the person to whom support payments are to be remitted.

            (b) On receipt of a request for registration, the registering tribunal shall cause the order to be filed as an order of a tribunal of another state or a foreign support order, together with one copy of the documents and information, regardless of their form.

            (c) A petition or comparable pleading seeking a remedy that must be affirmatively sought under other law of this state may be filed at the same time as the request for registration or later. The pleading must specify the grounds for the remedy sought.

            (d) If two or more orders are in effect, the person requesting registration shall:

            (1) furnish to the tribunal a copy of every support order asserted to be in effect in addition to the documents specified in this section;

            (2) specify the order alleged to be the controlling order, if any; and

            (3) specify the amount of consolidated arrears, if any.

            (e) A request for a determination of which is the controlling order may be filed separately or with a request for registration and enforcement or for registration and modification. The person requesting registration shall give notice of the request to each party whose rights may be affected by the determination.

            454.1638. (a) A support order or income withholding order issued in another state or a foreign support order is registered when the order is filed in the registering tribunal of this state.

            (b) A registered support order issued in another state or a foreign country is enforceable in the same manner and is subject to the same procedures as an order issued by a tribunal of this state.

            (c) Except as otherwise provided in sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, a tribunal of this state shall recognize and enforce, but may not modify, a registered support order if the issuing tribunal had jurisdiction.

            454.1641. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (d), the law of the issuing state or foreign country governs:

            (1) the nature, extent, amount, and duration of current payments under a registered support order;

            (2) the computation and payment of arrearages and accrual of interest on the arrearages under the support order; and

            (3) the existence and satisfaction of other other obligations under the support order.

            (b) In a proceeding for arrears under a registered support order, the statute of limitation of this state or of the issuing state or foreign country, whichever is longer, applies.

            (c) A responding tribunal of this state shall apply the procedures and remedies of this state to enforce current support and collect arrears and interest due on a support order of another state or a foreign country registered in this state.

            (d) After a tribunal of this state or another state determines which is the controlling order and issues an order consolidating arrears, if any, a tribunal of this state shall prospectively apply the law of the state or foreign country issuing the controlling order, including its law on interest on arrears, on current and future support, and on consolidated arrears.

Part 2

CONTEST OF VALIDITY OF ENFORCEMENT

            454.1644. (a) When a support order or income withholding order issued in another state or a foreign support order is registered, the registering tribunal of this state shall notify the nonregistering party. The notice must be accompanied by a copy of the registered order and the documents and relevant information accompanying the order.

            (b) The notice must inform the nonregistering party:

            (1) that a registered order is enforceable as of the date of registration in the same manner as an order issued by a tribunal of this state;

            (2) that a hearing to contest the validity or enforcement of the registered order must be requested within twenty days after notice unless the registered order is under section 454.1698;

            (3) that failure to contest the validity or enforcement of the registered order in a timely manner will result in confirmation of the order and enforcement of the order and the alleged arrearages; and

            (4) of the amount of any alleged arrearages.

            (c) If the registering party asserts that two or more orders are in effect, a notice must also:

            (1) identify the two or more orders and the order alleged by the registering party to be the controlling order and the consolidated arrears, if any;

            (2) notify the nonregistering party of the right to a determination of which is the controlling order;

            (3) state that the procedures provided in subsection (b) apply to the determination of which is the controlling order; and

            (4) state that failure to contest the validity or enforcement of the order alleged to be the controlling order in a timely manner may result in confirmation that the order is the controlling order.

            (d) Upon registration of an income withholding order for enforcement, the support enforcement agency or the registering tribunal shall notify the obligor's employer pursuant to section 452.350 or 454.505.

            454.1647. (a) A nonregistering party seeking to contest the validity or enforcement of a registered support order in this state shall request a hearing within the time required by section 454.1644. The nonregistering party may seek to vacate the registration, to assert any defense to an allegation of noncompliance with the registered order, or to contest the remedies being sought or the amount of any alleged arrearages pursuant to section 454.1650.

            (b) If the nonregistering party fails to contest the validity or enforcement of the registered support order in a timely manner, the order is confirmed by operation of law.

            (c) If a nonregistering party requests a hearing to contest the validity or enforcement of the registered support order, the registering tribunal shall schedule the matter for hearing and give notice to the parties of the date, time, and place of the hearing.

            454.1650. (a) A party contesting the validity or enforcement of a registered support order or seeking to vacate the registration has the burden of proving one or more of the following defenses:

            (1) the issuing tribunal lacked personal jurisdiction over the contesting party;

            (2) the order was obtained by fraud;

            (3) the order has been vacated, suspended, or modified by a later order;

            (4) the issuing tribunal has stayed the order pending appeal;

            (5) there is a defense under the law of this state to the remedy sought;

            (6) full or partial payment has been made;

            (7) the statute of limitation under section 454.1641 precludes enforcement of some or all of the alleged arrearages; or

            (8) the alleged controlling order is not the controlling order.

            (b) If a party presents evidence establishing a full or partial defense under subsection (a), a tribunal may stay enforcement of a registered support order, continue the proceeding to permit production of additional relevant evidence, and issue other appropriate orders. An uncontested portion of the registered support order may be enforced by all remedies available under the law of this state.

            (c) If the contesting party does not establish a defense under subsection (a) to the validity or enforcement of a registered support order, the registering tribunal shall issue an order confirming the order.

            454.1653. Confirmation of a registered support order, whether by operation of law or after notice and hearing, precludes further contest of the order with respect to any matter that could have been asserted at the time of registration.

Part 3

REGISTRATION AND MODIFICATION OF CHILD SUPPORT ORDER OF ANOTHER STATE

            454.1656. A party or support enforcement agency seeking to modify, or to modify and enforce, a child support order issued in another state shall register that order in this state in the same manner provided in sections 454.1632 through 454.1653 if the order has not been registered. A petition for modification may be filed at the same time as a request for registration, or later. The pleading must specify the grounds for modification.

            454.1659. A tribunal of this state may enforce a child support order of another state registered for purposes of modification, in the same manner as if the order had been issued by a tribunal of this state, but the registered support order may be modified only if the requirements of section 454.1662 or 454.1668 have been met.

            454.1662. (a) If section 454.1668 does not apply, upon petition a tribunal of this state may modify a child support order issued in another state which is registered in this state if, after notice and hearing, the tribunal finds that:

            (1) the following requirements are met:

            (A) neither the child, nor the obligee who is an individual, nor the obligor resides in the issuing state;

            (B) a petitioner who is a nonresident of this state seeks modification; and

            (C) the respondent is subject to the personal jurisdiction of the tribunal of this state; or

            (2) this state is the residence of the child, or a party who is an individual is subject to the personal jurisdiction of the tribunal of this state, and all of the parties who are individuals have filed consents in a record in the issuing tribunal for a tribunal of this state to modify the support order and assume continuing, exclusive jurisdiction.

            (b) Modification of a registered child support order is subject to the same requirements, procedures, and defenses that apply to the modification of an order issued by a tribunal of this state and the order may be enforced and satisfied in the same manner.

            (c) A tribunal of this state may not modify any aspect of a child support order that may not be modified under the law of the issuing state, including the duration of the obligation of support. If two or more tribunals have issued child support orders for the same obligor and same child, the order that controls and must be so recognized under section 454.1533 establishes the aspects of the support order which are nonmodifiable.

            (d) In a proceeding to modify a child support order, the law of the state that is determined to have issued the initial controlling order governs the duration of the obligation of support. The obligor's fulfillment of the duty of support established by that order precludes imposition of a further obligation of support by a tribunal of this state.

            (e) On the issuance of an order by a tribunal of this state modifying a child support order issued in another state, the tribunal of this state becomes the tribunal having continuing, exclusive jurisdiction.

            (f) Notwithstanding subsections (a) through (e) and subsection (b) of section 454.1515, a tribunal of this state retains jurisdiction to modify an order issued by a tribunal of this state if:

            (1) one party resides in another state; and

            (2) the other party resides outside the United States.

            454.1665. If a child support order issued by a tribunal of this state is modified by a tribunal of another state which assumed jurisdiction pursuant to sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, a tribunal of this state:

            (1) may enforce its order that was modified only as to arrears and interest accruing before the modification;

            (2) may provide appropriate relief for violations of its order which occurred before the effective date of the modification; and

            (3) shall recognize the modifying order of the other state, upon registration, for the purpose of enforcement.

            454.1668. (a) If all of the parties who are individuals reside in this state and the child does not reside in the issuing state, a tribunal of this state has jurisdiction to enforce and to modify the issuing state's child support order in a proceeding to register that order.

            (b) A tribunal of this state exercising jurisdiction under this section shall apply the provisions of Articles 1 and 2, sections 454.850 to 454.1545; this article, sections 454.1632 to 454.1677, and the procedural and substantive law of this state to the proceedings for enforcement or modification. Article 3, sections 454.1548 to 454.1602; Article 4, sections 454.1605 to 454.1608; Article 5, sections 454.1611 to 454.1629, Article 7, sections 454.1680 to 454.1716; and Article 8, sections 454.1719 to 454.1722, do not apply.

            454.1671. Within thirty days after issuance of a modified child support order, the party obtaining the modification shall file a certified copy of the order with the issuing tribunal which had continuing, exclusive jurisdiction over the earlier order, and in each tribunal in which the party knows that earlier order has been registered. A party who obtains the order and fails to file a certified copy is subject to appropriate sanctions by a tribunal in which the issue of failure to file arises. The failure to file does not affect the validity or enforceability of the modified order of the new tribunal having continuing, exclusive jurisdiction.

Part 4

REGISTRATION AND MODIFICATION OF FOREIGN CHILD SUPPORT ORDER

            454.1674. (a) Except as otherwise provided in section 454.1708, if a foreign country lacks or refuses to exercise jurisdiction to modify its child support order pursuant to its laws, a tribunal of this state may assume jurisdiction to modify the child support order and bind all individuals subject to the personal jurisdiction of the tribunal whether the consent to modification of a child support order otherwise required of the individual pursuant to section 454.1662 has been given or whether the individual seeking modification is a resident of this state or of the foreign country.

            (b) An order issued by a tribunal of this state modifying a foreign child support order pursuant to this section is the controlling order.

            454.1677. A party or support enforcement agency seeking to modify, or to modify and enforce, a foreign child support order not under the Convention may register that order in this state under sections 454.1632 to 454.1653 if the order has not been registered. A petition for modification may be filed at the same time as a request for registration, or at another time. The petition must specify the grounds for modification.

ARTICLE 7

SUPPORT PROCEEDING UNDER CONVENTION

            454.1680. In this Article, sections 454.1680 to 454.1716:

            (1) "Application" means a request under the Convention by an obligee or obligor, or on behalf of a child, made through a central authority for assistance from another central authority.

            (2) "Central authority" means the entity designated by the United States or a foreign country described in section 454.1503(5)(D) to perform the functions specified in the Convention.

            (3) "Convention support order" means a support order of a tribunal of a foreign country described in section 454.1503(5)(D).

            (4) "Direct request" means a petition filed by an individual in a tribunal of this state in a proceeding involving an obligee, obligor, or child residing outside the United States.

            (5) "Foreign central authority" means the entity designated by a foreign country described in section 454.1503(5)(D) to perform the functions specified in the Convention.

            (6) "Foreign support agreement":

            (A) means an agreement for support in a record that:

            (i) is enforceable as a support order in the country of origin;

            (ii) has been:

            (I) formally drawn up or registered as an authentic instrument by a foreign tribunal; or

            (II) authenticated by, or concluded, registered, or filed with a foreign tribunal; and

            (iii) may be reviewed and modified by a foreign tribunal; and

            (B) includes a maintenance arrangement or authentic instrument under the Convention.

            (7) "United States central authority" means the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

            454.1683. This Article, sections 454.1680 to 454.1716, applies only to a support proceeding under the Convention. In such a proceeding, if a provision of this Article is inconsistent with Articles 1 through 6, sections 454.1500 to 454.1677, this article controls.

            454.1686. The family support division within the department of social services of this state is recognized as the agency designated by the United States central authority to perform specific functions under the Convention.

            454.1689. (a) In a support proceeding under this Article, the family support division within the department of social services of this state shall:

            (1) transmit and receive applications; and

            (2) initiate or facilitate the institution of a proceeding regarding an application in a tribunal of this state.

            (b) The following support proceedings are available to an obligee under the Convention:

            (1) recognition or recognition and enforcement of a foreign support order;

            (2) enforcement of a support order issued or recognized in this state;

            (3) establishment of a support order if there is no existing order, including, if necessary, determination of parentage of a child;

            (4) establishment of a support order if recognition of a foreign support order is refused under section 454.1701(b)(2), (4), or (9);

            (5) modification of a support order of a tribunal of this state; and

            (6) modification of a support order of a tribunal of another state or a foreign country.

            (c) The following support proceedings are available under the Convention to an obligor against which there is an existing support order:

            (1) recognition of an order suspending or limiting enforcement of an existing support order of a tribunal of this state;

            (2) modification of a support order of a tribunal of this state; and

            (3) modification of a support order of a tribunal of another state or a foreign country.

            (d) A tribunal of this state may not require security, bond, or deposit, however described, to guarantee the payment of costs and expenses in proceedings under the Convention.

            454.1692. (a) A petitioner may file a direct request seeking establishment or modification of a support order or determination of parentage of a child. In the proceeding, the law of this state applies.

            (b) A petitioner may file a direct request seeking recognition and enforcement of a support order or support agreement. In the proceeding, sections 454.1695 through 454.1716 apply.

            (c) In a direct request for recognition and enforcement of a Convention support order or foreign support agreement:

            (1) a security, bond, or deposit is not required to guarantee the payment of costs and expenses; and

            (2) an obligee or obligor that in the issuing country has benefited from free legal assistance is entitled to benefit, at least to the same extent, from any free legal assistance provided for by the law of this state under the same circumstances.

            (d) A petitioner filing a direct request is not entitled to assistance from the department of social services.

            (e) This Article, sections 454.1680 to 454.1716, does not prevent the application of laws of this state that provide simplified, more expeditious rules regarding a direct request for recognition and enforcement of a foreign support order or foreign support agreement.

            454.1695. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this Article, sections 454.1680 to 454.1716, a party who is an individual or a support enforcement agency seeking recognition of a Convention support order shall register the order in this state as provided in Article 6, sections 454.1632 to 454.1677.

            (b) Notwithstanding sections 454.1580 and 454.1635(a), a request for registration of a Convention support order must be accompanied by:

            (1) a complete text of the support order;

            (2) a record stating that the support order is enforceable in the issuing country;

            (3) if the respondent did not appear and was not represented in the proceedings in the issuing country, a record attesting, as appropriate, either that the respondent had proper notice of the proceedings and an opportunity to be heard or that the respondent had proper notice of the support order and an opportunity to be heard in a challenge or appeal on fact or law before a tribunal;

            (4) a record showing the amount of arrears, if any, and the date the amount was calculated;

            (5) a record showing a requirement for automatic adjustment of the amount of support, if any, and the information necessary to make the appropriate calculations; and

            (6) if necessary, a record showing the extent to which the applicant received free legal assistance in the issuing country.

            (c) A request for registration of a Convention support order may seek recognition and partial enforcement of the order.

            (d) A tribunal of this state may vacate the registration of a Convention support order without the filing of a contest under section 454.1698 only if, acting on its own motion, the tribunal finds that recognition and enforcement of the order would be manifestly incompatible with public policy.

            (e) The tribunal shall promptly notify the parties of the registration or the order vacating the registration of a Convention support order.

            454.1698. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this Article, sections 454.1680 to 454.1716, sections 454.1644 to 454.1653 apply to a contest of a registered Convention support order.

            (b) A party contesting a registered Convention support order shall file a contest not later than thirty days after notice of the registration, but if the contesting party does not reside in the United States, the contest must be filed not later than sixty days after notice of the registration.

            (c) If the nonregistering party fails to contest the registered Convention support order by the time specified in subsection (b), the order is enforceable.

            (d) A contest of a registered Convention support order may be based only on grounds set forth in section 454.1701. The contesting party bears the burden of proof.

            (e) In a contest of a registered Convention support order, a tribunal of this state:

            (1) is bound by the findings of fact on which the foreign tribunal based its jurisdiction; and

            (2) may not review the merits of the order.

            (f) A tribunal of this state deciding a contest of a registered Convention support order shall promptly notify the parties of its decision.

            (g) A challenge or appeal, if any, does not stay the enforcement of a Convention support order unless there are exceptional circumstances.

            454.1701. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b), a tribunal of this state shall recognize and enforce a registered Convention support order.

            (b) The following grounds are the only grounds on which a tribunal of this state may refuse recognition and enforcement of a registered Convention support order:

            (1) recognition and enforcement of the order is manifestly incompatible with public policy, including the failure of the issuing tribunal to observe minimum standards of due process, which include notice and an opportunity to be heard;

            (2) the issuing tribunal lacked personal jurisdiction consistent with section 454.1515;

            (3) the order is not enforceable in the issuing country;

            (4) the order was obtained by fraud in connection with a matter of procedure;

            (5) a record transmitted in accordance with section 454.1693 lacks authenticity or integrity;

            (6) a proceeding between the same parties and having the same purpose is pending before a tribunal of this state and that proceeding was the first to be filed;

            (7) the order is incompatible with a more recent support order involving the same parties and having the same purpose if the more recent support order is entitled to recognition and enforcement under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 in this state;

            (8) payment, to the extent alleged arrears have been paid in whole or in part;

            (9) in a case in which the respondent neither appeared nor was represented in the proceeding in the issuing foreign country:

            (A) if the law of that country provides for prior notice of proceedings, the respondent did not have proper notice of the proceedings and an opportunity to be heard; or

            (B) if the law of that country does not provide for prior notice of the proceedings, the respondent did not have proper notice of the order and an opportunity to be heard in a challenge or appeal on fact or law before a tribunal; or

            (10) the order was made in violation of section 454.1710.

            (c) If a tribunal of this state does not recognize a Convention support order under subsection (b)(2), (4), or (9):

            (1) the tribunal may not dismiss the proceeding without allowing a reasonable time for a party to request the establishment of a new Convention support order; and

            (2) the family support division shall take all appropriate measures to request a child support order for the obligee if the application for recognition and enforcement was received under section 454.1689.

            454.1704. If a tribunal of this state does not recognize and enforce a Convention support order in its entirety, it shall enforce any severable part of the order. An application or direct request may seek recognition and partial enforcement of a Convention support order.

            454.1707. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subsections (c) and (d), a tribunal of this state shall recognize and enforce a foreign support agreement registered in this state.

            (b) An application or direct request for recognition and enforcement of a foreign support agreement must be accompanied by:

            (1) a complete text of the foreign support agreement; and

            (2) a record stating that the foreign support agreement is enforceable as an order of support in the issuing country.

            (c) A tribunal of this state may vacate the registration of a foreign support agreement only if, acting on its own motion, the tribunal finds that recognition and enforcement would be manifestly incompatible with public policy.

            (d) In a contest of a foreign support agreement, a tribunal of this state may refuse recognition and enforcement of the agreement if it finds:

            (1) recognition and enforcement of the agreement is manifestly incompatible with public policy;

            (2) the agreement was obtained by fraud or falsification;

            (3) the agreement is incompatible with a support order involving the same parties and having the same purpose in this state, another state, or a foreign country if the support order is entitled to recognition and enforcement under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730; or

            (4) the record submitted under subsection (b) lacks authenticity or integrity.

            (e) A proceeding for recognition and enforcement of a foreign support agreement must be suspended during the pendency of a challenge to or appeal of the agreement before a tribunal of another state or a foreign country.

            454.1710. (a) A tribunal of this state may not modify a Convention child support order if the obligee remains a resident of the foreign country where the support order was issued unless:

            (1) the obligee submits to the jurisdiction of a tribunal of this state, either expressly or by defending on the merits of the case without objecting to the jurisdiction at the first available opportunity; or

            (2) the foreign tribunal lacks or refuses to exercise jurisdiction to modify its support order or issue a new support order.

            (b) If a tribunal of this state does not modify a Convention child support order because the order is not recognized in this state, section 454.1701(c) applies.

            454.1713. Personal information gathered or transmitted under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 may be used only for the purposes for which it was gathered or transmitted.

            454.1716. A record filed with a tribunal of this state under this Article, sections 454.1680 to 454.1716, must be in the original language and, if not in English, must be accompanied by an English translation.

ARTICLE 8

INTERSTATE RENDITION

            454.1719. (a) For purposes of this Article, sections 454.1719 to 454.1722, "governor" includes an individual performing the functions of governor or the executive authority of a state covered under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730.

            (b) The governor of this state may:

            (1) demand that the governor of another state surrender an individual found in the other state who is charged criminally in this state with having failed to provide for the support of an obligee; or

            (2) on the demand of the governor of another state, surrender an individual found in this state who is charged criminally in the other state with having failed to provide for the support of an obligee.

            (c) A provision for extradition of individuals not inconsistent with sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 applies to the demand even if the individual whose surrender is demanded was not in the demanding state when the crime was allegedly committed and has not fled therefrom.

            454.1722. (a) Before making a demand that the governor of another state surrender an individual charged criminally in this state with having failed to provide for the support of an obligee, the governor of this state may require a prosecutor of this state to demonstrate that at least sixty days previously the obligee had initiated proceedings for support pursuant to sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 or that the proceeding would be of no avail.

            (b) If, under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 or a law substantially similar to sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, the governor of another state makes a demand that the governor of this state surrender an individual charged criminally in that state with having failed to provide the support of a child or other individual to whom a duty of support is owed, the governor may require a prosecutor to investigate the demand and report whether a proceeding for support has been initiated or would be effective. If it appears that a proceeding would be effective but has not been initiated, the governor may delay honoring the demand for a reasonable time to permit the initiation of a proceeding.

            (c) If a proceeding for support has been initiated and the individual whose rendition is demanded prevails, the governor may decline to honor the demand. If the petitioner prevails and the individual whose rendition is demanded is subject to a support order, the governor may decline to honor the demand if the individual is complying with the support order.

ARTICLE 9

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

            454.1725. In applying and construing sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, consideration must be given to the need to promote uniformity of the law with respect to its subject matter among states that enact it.

            454.1728. The provisions of sections 210.822 and 210.834 shall apply to a proceeding under sections 454.1500 to 454.1730, but no other provisions of sections 210.817 through 210.852 shall apply.

            454.1730. Sections 454.1500 to 454.1730 shall become effective upon ratification by the United States Congress of the Convention signed by the United States at the Hague, Netherlands on November 23, 2007.

[454.850. In sections 454.850 to 454.997:

(1) "Child" means an individual, whether over or under the age of majority, who is or is alleged to be owed a duty of support by the individual's parent or who is or is alleged to be the beneficiary of a support order directed to the parent.

(2) "Child support order" means a support order for a child, including a child who has attained the age of majority under the law of the issuing state.

(3) "Duty of support" means an obligation imposed or imposable by law to provide support for a child, spouse, or former spouse, including an unsatisfied obligation to provide support.

(4) "Home state" means the state in which a child lived with a parent or a person acting as parent for at least six consecutive months immediately preceding the time of filing of a petition or comparable pleading for support and, if a child is less than six months old, the state in which the child lived from birth with any of them. A period of temporary absence of any of them is counted as part of the six-month or other period.

(5) "Income" includes earnings or other periodic entitlements to money from any source and any other property subject to withholding for support under the law of this state.

(6) "Income-withholding order" means an order or other legal process directed to an obligor's employer or other debtor, as defined by section 452.350, RSMo, or 454.505, to withhold support from the income of the obligor.

(7) "Initiating state" means a state from which a proceeding is forwarded or in which a proceeding is filed for forwarding to a responding state under the provisions of sections 454.850 to 454.997 or a law or procedure substantially similar to sections 454.850 to 454.997, or under a law or procedure substantially similar to the uniform reciprocal enforcement of support act, or the revised uniform reciprocal enforcement of support act .

(8) "Initiating tribunal" means the authorized tribunal in an initiating state.

(9) "Issuing state" means the state in which a tribunal issues a support order or renders a judgment determining parentage.

(10) "Issuing tribunal" means the tribunal that issues a support order or renders a judgment determining parentage.

(11) "Law" includes decisional and statutory law and rules and regulations having the force of law.

(12) "Obligee" means:

(i) an individual to whom a duty of support is or is alleged to be owed or in whose favor a support order has been issued or a judgment determining parentage has been rendered;

(ii) a state or political subdivision to which the rights under a duty of support or support order have been assigned or which has independent claims based on financial assistance provided to an individual obligee; or

(iii) an individual seeking a judgment determining parentage of the individual's child.

(13) "Obligor" means an individual, or the estate of a decedent:

(i) who owes or is alleged to owe a duty of support;

(ii) who is alleged but has not been adjudicated to be a parent of a child; or

(iii) who is liable under a support order.

(14) "Register" means to record or file a support order or judgment determining parentage in the tribunal having jurisdiction in such action.

(15) "Registering tribunal" means a tribunal in which a support order is registered.

(16) "Responding state" means a state in which a proceeding is filed or to which a proceeding is forwarded for filing from an initiating state under the provisions of sections 454.850 to 454.997 or a law substantially similar to sections 454.850 to 454.997, or under a law or procedure substantially similar to the uniform reciprocal enforcement of support act, or the revised uniform reciprocal enforcement of support act.

(17) "Responding tribunal" means the authorized tribunal in a responding state.

(18) "Spousal-support order" means a support order for a spouse or former spouse of the obligor.

(19) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. The term "state" includes:

(i) an Indian tribe; and

(ii) a foreign jurisdiction that has enacted a law or established procedures for issuance and enforcement of support orders which are substantially similar to the procedures under sections 454.850 to 454.997 or the procedures under the uniform reciprocal enforcement of support act or the revised uniform reciprocal enforcement of support act.

(20) "Support enforcement agency" means a public official or agency authorized to seek:

(i) enforcement of support orders or laws relating to the duty of support;

(ii) establishment or modification of child support;

(iii) determination of parentage; or

(iv) to locate obligors or their assets.

(21) "Support order" means a judgment, decree, or order, whether temporary, final, or subject to modification, for the benefit of a child, a spouse, or a former spouse, which provides for monetary support, health care, arrearages, or reimbursement, and may include related costs and fees, interest, income withholding, attorney's fees, and other relief.

(22) "Tribunal" means a court, administrative agency, or quasi-judicial entity authorized to establish, enforce, or modify support orders or to determine parentage.]

  

[454.853. The courts and the division of child support enforcement are the tribunals of this state.]

  

[454.855. Remedies provided by sections 454.850 to 454.997 are cumulative and do not affect the availability of remedies under other law.]

  

[454.857. In a proceeding to establish, enforce, or modify a support order or to determine parentage, a tribunal of this state may exercise personal jurisdiction over a nonresident individual or the individual's guardian or conservator if:

(1) the individual is personally served with notice within this state;

(2) the individual submits to the jurisdiction of this state by consent, by entering a general appearance, or by filing a responsive document having the effect of waiving any contest to personal jurisdiction;

(3) the individual resided with the child in this state;

(4) the individual resided in this state and provided prenatal expenses or support for the child;

(5) the child resides in this state as a result of the acts or directives of the individual;

(6) the individual engaged in sexual intercourse in this state and the child may have been conceived by that act of intercourse;

(7) the individual asserted parentage in the putative father registry maintained in this state by the department of health and senior services; or

(8) there is any other basis consistent with the constitutions of this state and the United States for the exercise of personal jurisdiction.]

  

[454.860. A tribunal of this state exercising personal jurisdiction over a nonresident under section 454.857 may apply section 454.917 to receive evidence from another state, and section 454.922 to obtain discovery through a tribunal of another state. In all other respects, sections 454.880 to 454.983 do not apply and the tribunal shall apply the procedural and substantive law of this state, including the rules on choice of law other than those established by sections 454.850 to 454.997.]

  

[454.862. Under sections 454.850 to 454.997, a tribunal of this state may serve as an initiating tribunal to forward proceedings to another state and as a responding tribunal for proceedings initiated in another state.]

  

[454.865. (a) A tribunal of this state may exercise jurisdiction to establish a support order if the petition or comparable pleading is filed after a petition or comparable pleading is filed in another state only if:

(1) the petition or comparable pleading in this state is filed before the expiration of the time allowed in the other state for filing a responsive pleading challenging the exercise of jurisdiction by the other state;

(2) the contesting party timely challenges the exercise of jurisdiction in the other state; and

(3) if relevant, this state is the home state of the child.

(b) A tribunal of this state may not exercise jurisdiction to establish a support order if the petition or comparable pleading is filed before a petition or comparable pleading is filed in another state if:

(1) the petition or comparable pleading in the other state is filed before the expiration of the time allowed in this state for filing a responsive pleading challenging the exercise of jurisdiction by this state;

(2) the contesting party timely challenges the exercise of jurisdiction in this state; and

(3) if relevant, the other state is the home state of the child.]

 

[454.867. (a) A tribunal of this state issuing a support order consistent with the law of this state has continuing, exclusive jurisdiction over a child support order:

(1) as long as this state remains the residence of the obligor, the individual obligee, or the child for whose benefit the support order is issued; or

(2) until each individual party has filed written consent with the tribunal of this state for a tribunal of another state to modify the order and assume continuing, exclusive jurisdiction.

(b) A tribunal of this state issuing a child support order consistent with the law of this state may not exercise its continuing jurisdiction to modify the order if the order has been modified by a tribunal of another state pursuant to sections 454.850 to 454.997 or a law substantially similar to sections 454.850 to 454.997.

(c) If a child support order of this state is modified by a tribunal of another state pursuant to sections 454.850 to 454.997 or a law substantially similar to sections 454.850 to 454.997, a tribunal of this state loses its continuing, exclusive jurisdiction with regard to prospective enforcement of the order issued in this state, and may only:

(1) enforce the order that was modified as to amounts accruing before the modification;

(2) enforce nonmodifiable aspects of that order; and

(3) provide other appropriate relief for violations of that order which occurred before the effective date of the modification.

(d) A tribunal of this state shall recognize the continuing, exclusive jurisdiction of a tribunal of another state which has issued a child support order pursuant to sections 454.850 to 454.997 or a law substantially similar to sections 454.850 to 454.997.

(e) A temporary support order issued ex parte or pending resolution of a jurisdictional conflict does not create continuing, exclusive jurisdiction in the issuing tribunal.

(f) A tribunal of this state issuing a support order consistent with the law of this state has continuing, exclusive jurisdiction over a spousal support order throughout the existence of the support obligation. A tribunal of this state may not modify a spousal support order issued by a tribunal of another state having continuing, exclusive jurisdiction over that order under the law of that state.]

  

[454.869. (a) A tribunal of this state may serve as an initiating tribunal to request a tribunal of another state to enforce or modify a support order issued in that state.

(b) A tribunal of this state having continuing, exclusive jurisdiction over a support order may act as a responding tribunal to enforce or modify the order. If a party subject to the continuing, exclusive jurisdiction of the tribunal no longer resides in the issuing state, in subsequent proceedings the tribunal may apply section 454.917 to receive evidence from another state and section 454.922 to obtain discovery through a tribunal of another state.

(c) A tribunal of this state which lacks continuing, exclusive jurisdiction over a spousal support order may not serve as a responding tribunal to modify a spousal support order of another state.]

  

[454.871. (a) If a proceeding is brought under sections 454.850 to 454.997, and only one tribunal has issued a child support order, the order of that tribunal is controlling and must be recognized.

(b) If a proceeding is brought under sections 454.850 to 454.997, and two or more child support orders have been issued by tribunals of this state or another state with regard to the same obligor and child, a tribunal of this state shall apply the following rules in determining which order to recognize for purposes of continuing, exclusive jurisdiction:

(1) If only one of the tribunals would have continuing, exclusive jurisdiction under sections 454.850 to 454.997, the order of that tribunal is controlling and must be recognized.

(2) If more than one of the tribunals would have continuing, exclusive jurisdiction under sections 454.850 to 454.997, an order issued by a tribunal in the current home state of the child must be recognized, but if an order has not been issued in the current home state of the child, the order most recently issued is controlling and must be recognized.

(3) If none of the tribunals would have continuing exclusive jurisdiction under sections 454.850 to 454.997, the tribunal of this state having jurisdiction over the parties must issue a child support order, which is controlling and must be recognized.

(c) If two or more child support orders have been issued for the same obligor and child and if the obligor or the individual obligee resides in this state, a party may request a tribunal of this state to determine which order controls and must be recognized under subsection (b) of this section. The request must be accompanied by a certified copy of every support order in effect. Every party whose rights may be affected by a determination of the controlling order must be given notice of the request for that determination.

(d) The tribunal that issued the order that must be recognized as controlling under subsection (a), (b) or (c) of this section is the tribunal that has continuing, exclusive jurisdiction in accordance with section 454.867.

(e) A tribunal of this state which determines by order the identity of the controlling child support order under subsection (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section or which issues a new controlling child support order under subsection (b)(3) shall include in that order the basis upon which the tribunal made its determination.

(f) Within thirty days after issuance of the order determining the identity of the controlling order, the party obtaining that order shall file a certified copy of it with each tribunal that had issued or registered an earlier order of child support. Failure of the party obtaining the order to file a certified copy as required subjects that party to appropriate sanctions by a tribunal in which the issue of failure to file arises, but that failure has no effect on the validity or enforceability of the controlling order.]

  

[454.874. In responding to multiple registrations or petitions for enforcement of two or more child support orders in effect at the same time with regard to the same obligor and different individual obligees, at least one of which was issued by a tribunal of another state, a tribunal of this state shall enforce those orders in the same manner as if the multiple orders had been issued by a tribunal of this state.]

  

[454.877. Amounts collected and credited for a particular period pursuant to a support order issued by a tribunal of another state must be credited against the amounts accruing or accrued for the same period under a support order issued by the tribunal of this state.]

  

[454.880. (a) Except as otherwise provided in sections 454.850 to 454.997, this article applies to all proceedings under sections 454.850 to 454.997.

(b) Sections 454.850 to 454.997, provide for the following proceedings:

(1) establishment of an order for spousal support or child support pursuant to section 454.930;

(2) enforcement of a support order and income withholding order of another state without registration pursuant to sections 454.932 to 454.946;

(3) registration of an order for spousal support or child support of another state for enforcement pursuant to sections 454.948 to 454.981;

(4) modification of an order for child support or spousal support issued by a tribunal of this state pursuant to sections 454.862 to 454.869;

(5) registration of an order for child support of another state for modification pursuant to sections 454.948 to 454.981;

(6) determination of parentage pursuant to section 454.983; and

(7) assertion of jurisdiction over nonresidents pursuant to sections 454.857 to 454.860.

(c) An individual petitioner or a support enforcement agency may commence a proceeding authorized under sections 454.850 to 454.997, by filing a petition in an initiating tribunal for forwarding to a responding tribunal or by filing a petition or a comparable pleading directly in a tribunal of another state which has or can obtain personal jurisdiction over the respondent.]

  

[454.882. A minor parent, or a guardian or other legal representative of a minor parent, may maintain a proceeding on behalf of or for the benefit of the minor's child.]

  

[454.885. Except as otherwise provided by sections 454.850 to 454.997, a responding tribunal of this state:

(1) shall apply the procedural and substantive law, including the rules on choice of law, generally applicable to similar proceedings originating in this state and may exercise all powers and provide all remedies available in those proceedings; and

(2) shall determine the duty of support and the amount payable in accordance with the law and support guidelines of this state.]

  

[454.887. (a) Upon the filing of a petition authorized by sections 454.850 to 454.997, an initiating tribunal of this state shall forward three copies of the petition and its accompanying documents:

(1) to the responding tribunal or appropriate support enforcement agency in the responding state; or

(2) if the identity of the responding tribunal is unknown, to the state information agency of the responding state with a request that they be forwarded to the appropriate tribunal and that receipt be acknowledged.

(b) If a responding state has not enacted the uniform interstate family support act or a law or procedure substantially similar to the uniform interstate family support act, a tribunal of this state may issue a certificate or other documents and make findings required by the law of the responding state. If the responding state is a foreign jurisdiction, the tribunal may specify the amount of support sought and provide other documents necessary to satisfy the requirements of the responding state.]

  

[454.890. (a) When a responding tribunal of this state receives a petition or comparable pleading from an initiating tribunal or directly pursuant to subsection (c) of section 454.880, it shall cause the petition or pleading to be filed and notify the petitioner where and when it was filed.

(b) A responding tribunal of this state, to the extent otherwise authorized by law, may do one or more of the following:

(1) issue or enforce a support order, modify a child support order, or render a judgment to determine parentage;

(2) order an obligor to comply with a support order, specifying the amount and the manner of compliance;

(3) order income withholding;

(4) determine the amount of any arrearages, and specify a method of payment;

(5) enforce orders by civil or criminal contempt, or both;

(6) set aside property for satisfaction of the support order;

(7) place liens and order execution on the obligor's property;

(8) order an obligor to keep the tribunal informed of the obligor's current residential address, telephone number, employer, address of employment, and telephone number at the place of employment;

(9) issue a bench warrant for an obligor who has failed after proper notice to appear at a hearing ordered by the tribunal and enter the bench warrant in any local and state computer systems for criminal warrants;

(10) order the obligor to seek appropriate employment by specified methods;

(11) award reasonable attorney's fees and other fees and costs; and

(12) grant any other available remedy.

(c) A responding tribunal of this state shall include a support order issued under sections 454.850 to 454.997, or in the documents accompanying the order, the calculations on which the support order is based.

(d) A responding tribunal of this state may not condition the payment of a support order issued under sections 454.850 to 454.997, upon compliance by a party with provisions for visitation.

(e) If a responding tribunal of this state issues an order under sections 454.850 to 454.997, the tribunal shall send a copy of the order to the petitioner and the respondent and to the initiating tribunal, if any.]

  

[454.892. If a petition or comparable pleading is received by an inappropriate tribunal of this state, it shall forward the pleading and accompanying documents to an appropriate tribunal in this state or another state and notify the petitioner by first class mail where and when the pleading was sent.]

  

[454.895. (a) A support enforcement agency of this state, upon request, shall provide services to a petitioner in a proceeding under sections 454.850 to 454.997.

(b) A support enforcement agency that is providing services to the petitioner as appropriate shall:

(1) take all steps necessary to enable an appropriate tribunal in this state or another state to obtain jurisdiction over the respondent;

(2) request an appropriate tribunal to set a date, time, and place for a hearing;

(3) make a reasonable effort to obtain all relevant information, including information as to income and property of the parties;

(4) within two days, exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays, after receipt of a written notice from an initiating, responding, or registering tribunal, send a copy of the notice to the petitioner;

(5) within two days, exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays, after receipt of a written communication from the respondent or the respondent's attorney, send a copy of the communication to the petitioner; and

(6) notify the petitioner if jurisdiction over the respondent cannot be obtained.

(c) Sections 454.850 to 454.997, do not create or negate a relationship of attorney and client or other fiduciary relationship between a support enforcement agency or the attorney for the agency and the individual being assisted by the agency.]

  

[454.897. If the attorney general determines that the support enforcement agency is neglecting or refusing to provide services to an individual, the attorney general may order the agency to perform its duties under sections 454.850 to 454.997 or may provide those services directly to the individual.]

  

[454.900. An individual may employ private counsel to represent the individual in proceedings authorized by sections 454.850 to 454.997.]

  

[454.902. (a) The division of child support enforcement is the state information agency under sections 454.850 to 454.997.

(b) The state information agency shall:

(1) compile and maintain a current list, including addresses, of the tribunals in this state which have jurisdiction under sections 454.850 to 454.997, and any support enforcement agencies in this state and transmit a copy to the state information agency of every other state;

(2) maintain a register of tribunals and support enforcement agencies received from other states;

(3) forward to the appropriate tribunal in the place in this state in which the individual obligee or the obligor resides, or in which the obligor's property is believed to be located, all documents concerning a proceeding under sections 454.850 to 454.997, received from an initiating tribunal or the state information agency of the initiating state; and

(4) obtain information concerning the location of the obligor and the obligor's property within this state not exempt from execution, by such means as postal verification and federal or state locator services, examination of telephone directories, requests for the obligor's address from employers, and examination of governmental records, including, to the extent not prohibited by other law, those relating to real property, vital statistics, law enforcement, taxation, motor vehicles, driver's licenses, and Social Security.]

  

[454.905. (a) A petitioner seeking to establish or modify a support order or to determine parentage in a proceeding under sections 454.850 to 454.997, must verify the petition. Unless otherwise ordered under section 454.907, the petition or accompanying documents must provide, so far as known, the name, residential address, and Social Security numbers of the obligor and the obligee, and the name, sex, residential address, Social Security number, and date of birth of each child for whom support is sought. The petition must be accompanied by a certified copy of any support order in effect. The petition may include any other information that may assist in locating or identifying the respondent.

(b) The petition must specify the relief sought. The petition and accompanying documents must conform substantially with the requirements imposed by the forms mandated by federal law for use in cases filed by a support enforcement agency.]

  

[454.907. Upon a finding, which may be made ex parte, that the health, safety, or liberty of a party or child would be unreasonably put at risk by the disclosure of identifying information, or if an existing order so provides, a tribunal shall order that the address of the child or party or other identifying information not be disclosed in a pleading or other document filed in a proceeding under sections 454.850 to 454.997.]

  

[454.910. (a) The petitioner may not be required to pay a filing fee or other costs.

(b) If an obligee prevails, a responding tribunal may assess against an obligor filing fees, reasonable attorney's fees, other costs, and necessary travel and other reasonable expenses incurred by the obligee and the obligee's witnesses. The tribunal may not assess fees, costs, or expenses against the obligee or the support enforcement agency of either the initiating or the responding state, except as provided by other law. Attorney's fees may be taxed as costs, and may be ordered paid directly to the attorney, who may enforce the order in the attorney's own name. Payment of support owed to the obligee has priority over fees, costs and expenses.

(c) The tribunal shall order the payment of costs and reasonable attorney's fees if it determines that a hearing was requested primarily for delay. In a proceeding under sections 454.948 to 454.981, a hearing is presumed to have been requested primarily for delay if a registered support order is confirmed or enforced without change.]

  

[454.912. (a) Participation by a petitioner in a proceeding before a responding tribunal, whether in person, by private attorney, or through services provided by the support enforcement agency, does not confer personal jurisdiction over the petitioner in another proceeding.

(b) A petitioner is not amenable to service of civil process while physically present in this state to participate in a proceeding under sections 454.850 to 454.997.

(c) The immunity granted by this section does not extend to civil litigation based on acts unrelated to a proceeding under sections 454.850 to 454.997, committed by a party while present in this state to participate in the proceeding.]

  

[454.915. A party whose parentage of a child has been previously determined by or pursuant to law may not plead nonparentage as a defense to a proceeding under sections 454.850 to 454.997.]

  

[454.917. (a) The physical presence of the petitioner in a responding tribunal of this state is not required for the establishment, enforcement, or modification of a support order or the rendition of a judgment determining parentage.

(b) A verified petition, affidavit, document substantially complying with federally mandated forms, and a document incorporated by reference in any of them, not excluded under the hearsay rule if given in person, is admissible in evidence if given under oath by a party or witness residing in another state.

(c) A copy of the record of child support payments certified as a true copy of the original by the custodian of the record may be forwarded to a responding tribunal. The copy is evidence of facts asserted in it, and is admissible to show whether payments were made.

(d) Copies of bills for testing for parentage, and for prenatal and postnatal health care of the mother and child, furnished to the adverse party at least ten days before trial, are admissible in evidence to prove the amount of the charges billed and that the charges were reasonable, necessary, and customary.

(e) Documentary evidence transmitted from another state to a tribunal of this state by telephone, telecopier, or other means that do not provide an original writing may not be excluded from evidence on an objection based on the means of transmission.

(f) In a proceeding under sections 454.850 to 454.997, a tribunal of this state may permit a party or witness residing in another state to be deposed or to testify by telephone, audiovisual means, or other electronic means at a designated tribunal or other location in that state. A tribunal of this state shall cooperate with tribunals of other states in designating an appropriate location for the deposition or testimony.

(g) If a party called to testify at a civil hearing refuses to answer on the ground that the testimony may be self-incriminating, the trier of fact may draw an adverse inference from the refusal.

(h) A privilege against disclosure of communications between spouses does not apply in a proceeding under sections 454.850 to 454.997.

(i) The defense of immunity based on the relationship of husband and wife or parent and child does not apply in a proceeding under sections 454.850 to 454.997.]

  

[454.920. A tribunal of this state may communicate with a tribunal of another state in writing, or by telephone or other means, to obtain information concerning the laws of that state, the legal effect of a judgment, decree, or order of that tribunal, and the status of a proceeding in the other state. A tribunal of this state may furnish similar information by similar means to a tribunal of another state.]

  

[454.922. A tribunal of this state may:

(1) request a tribunal of another state to assist in obtaining discovery; and

(2) upon request, compel a person over whom it has jurisdiction to respond to a discovery order issued by a tribunal of another state.]

  

[454.927. A support enforcement agency or tribunal of this state shall disburse promptly any amounts received pursuant to a support order, as directed by the order. The agency or tribunal shall furnish to a requesting party or tribunal of another state a certified statement by the custodian of the record of the amounts and dates of all payments received.]

  

[454.930. (a) If a support order entitled to recognition under sections 454.850 to 454.997, has not been issued, a responding tribunal of this state may issue a support order if:

(1) the individual seeking the order resides in another state; or

(2) the support enforcement agency seeking the order is located in another state.

(b) The tribunal may issue a temporary child support order if:

(1) the respondent has signed a verified statement acknowledging parentage;

(2) the respondent has been determined by or pursuant to law to be the parent; or

(3) there is other clear and convincing evidence that the respondent is the child's parent.

(c) Upon finding, after notice and opportunity to be heard, that an obligor owes a duty of support, the tribunal shall issue a support order directed to the obligor and may issue other orders pursuant to section 454.890.]

  

[454.932. An income withholding order issued in another state may be sent to the person or entity defined as the obligor's employer under section 452.350, RSMo, or section 454.505 without first filing a petition or comparable pleading or registering the order with a tribunal of this state.]

  

[454.934. (a) Upon receipt of the order, the obligor's employer shall immediately provide a copy of the order to the obligor.

(b) The employer shall treat an income withholding order issued in another state which appears regular on its face as if it had been issued by a tribunal of this state.

(c) Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section and section 454.936, the employer shall withhold and distribute the funds as directed in the withholding order by complying with the terms of the order, as applicable, that specify:

(1) the duration and the amount of periodic payments of current child support, stated as a sum certain;

(2) the person or agency designated to receive payments and the address to which the payments are to be forwarded;

(3) medical support, whether in the form of periodic cash payment, stated as a sum certain, or ordering the obligor to provide health insurance coverage for the child under a policy available through the obligor's employment;

(4) the amount of periodic payments of fees and costs for a support enforcement agency, the issuing tribunal, and the obligee's attorney, stated as sums certain; and

(5) the amount of periodic payments of arrears and interest on arrears, stated as sums certain.

(d) The employer shall comply with the law of the state of the obligor's principal place of employment for withholding from income with respect to:

(1) the employer's fee for processing an income withholding order;

(2) the maximum amount permitted to be withheld from the obligor's income;

(3) the time periods within which the employer must implement the withholding order and forward the child support payment.]

  

[454.936. If the obligor's employer receives multiple orders to withhold support from the earnings of the same obligor, the employer shall be deemed to have satisfied the terms of the multiple orders if the employer complied with the law of the state of the obligor's principal place of employment to establish the priorities for withholding and allocating income withheld for multiple child support orders.]

  

[454.938. An employer who complies with an income withholding order issued in another state in accordance with sections 454.932 to 454.946, is not subject to civil liability to any individual or agency with regard to the employer's withholding child support from the obligor's income.]

  

[454.941. An employer who willfully fails to comply with an income withholding order issued by another state and received for enforcement is subject to the same penalties that may be imposed for noncompliance with an order issued by a tribunal of this state.]

  

[454.943. (a) An obligor may contest the validity or enforcement of an income withholding order issued in another state and received directly by an employer in this state in the same manner as if the order had been issued by a tribunal of this state. Section 454.956 applies to the contest.

(b) The obligor shall give notice of the contest to:

(1) a support enforcement agency providing services to the obligee;

(2) each employer which has directly received an income withholding order; and

(3) the person or agency designated to receive payments in the income withholding order, or if no person or agency is designated, to the obligee.]

  

[454.946. (a) A party seeking to enforce a support order or an income withholding order, or both, issued by a tribunal of another state may send the documents required for registering the order to a support enforcement agency of this state.

(b) Upon receipt of the documents, the support enforcement agency, without initially seeking to register the order, shall consider and, if appropriate, use any administrative procedure authorized by the law of this state to enforce a support order or an income withholding order, or both. If the obligor does not contest administrative enforcement, the order need not be registered. If the obligor contests the validity or administrative enforcement of the order, the support enforcement agency shall register the order pursuant to sections 454.850 to 454.997.]

  

[454.948. A support order or an income withholding order issued by a tribunal of another state may be registered in this state for enforcement.]

  

[454.951. (a) A support order or income withholding order of another state may be registered in this state by sending the following documents and information to the appropriate tribunal in this state:

(1) a letter of transmittal to the tribunal requesting registration and enforcement;

(2) two copies, including one certified copy, of all orders to be registered, including any modification of an order;

(3) a sworn statement by the party seeking registration or a certified statement by the custodian of the records showing the amount of any arrearage;

(4) the name of the obligor and, if known:

(i) the obligor's address and Social Security number;

(ii) the name and address of the obligor's employer and any other source of income of the obligor; and

(iii) a description and the location of property of the obligor in this state not exempt from execution; and

(5) the name and address of the obligee and, if applicable, the agency or person to whom support payments are to be remitted.

(b) On receipt of a request for registration, the registering tribunal shall cause the order to be filed as a foreign judgment, together with one copy of the documents and information, regardless of their form.

(c) A petition or comparable pleading seeking a remedy that must be affirmatively sought under other law of this state may be filed at the same time as the request for registration or later. The pleading must specify the grounds for the remedy sought.]

  

[454.953. (a) A support order or income withholding order issued in another state is registered when the order is filed in the registering tribunal of this state.

(b) A registered order issued in another state is enforceable in the same manner and is subject to the same procedures as an order issued by a tribunal of this state.

(c) Except as otherwise provided in sections 454.948 to 454.981, a tribunal of this state shall recognize and enforce, but may not modify, a registered order if the issuing tribunal had jurisdiction.]

  

[454.956. (a) The law of the issuing state governs the nature, extent, amount, and duration of current payments and other obligations of support and the payment of arrearages under the order.

(b) In a proceeding for arrearages, the statute of limitation under the laws of this state or of the issuing state, whichever is longer, applies.]

  

[454.958. (a) When a support order or income withholding order issued in another state is registered, the registering tribunal shall notify the nonregistering party. The notice must be accompanied by a copy of the registered order and the documents and relevant information accompanying the order.

(b) The notice must inform the nonregistering party:

(1) that a registered order is enforceable as of the date of registration in the same manner as an order issued by a tribunal of this state;

(2) that a hearing to contest the validity or enforcement of the registered order must be requested within twenty days after the date of mailing or personal service of the notice;

(3) that failure to contest the validity or enforcement of the registered order in a timely manner will result in confirmation of the order and enforcement of the order and the alleged arrearages and precludes further contest of that order with respect to any matter that could have been asserted; and

(4) of the amount of any alleged arrearages.

(c) Upon registration of an income withholding order for enforcement, the registering tribunal shall notify the obligor's employer pursuant to section 452.350, RSMo, or section 454.505.]

  

[454.961. (a) A nonregistering party seeking to contest the validity or enforcement of a registered order in this state shall request a hearing within twenty days after the date of mailing or personal service of notice of the registration. The nonregistering party may seek to vacate the registration, to assert any defense to an allegation of noncompliance with the registered order, or to contest the remedies being sought or the amount of any alleged arrearages pursuant to section 454.963.

(b) If the nonregistering party fails to contest the validity or enforcement of the registered order in a timely manner, the order is confirmed by operation of law.

(c) If a nonregistering party requests a hearing to contest the validity or enforcement of the registered order, the registering tribunal shall schedule the matter for hearing and give notice to the parties of the date, time, and place of the hearing.]

  

[454.963. (a) A party contesting the validity or enforcement of a registered order or seeking to vacate the registration has the burden of proving one or more of the following defenses:

(1) the issuing tribunal lacked personal jurisdiction over the contesting party;

(2) the order was obtained by fraud;

(3) the order has been vacated, suspended, or modified by a later order;

(4) the issuing tribunal has stayed the order pending appeal;

(5) there is a defense under the law of this state to the remedy sought;

(6) full or partial payment has been made; or

(7) the statute of limitation under section 454.956 precludes enforcement of some or all of the arrearages.

(b) If a party presents evidence establishing a full or partial defense under subsection (a), a tribunal may stay enforcement of the registered order, continue the proceeding to permit production of additional relevant evidence, and issue other appropriate orders. An uncontested portion of the registered order may be enforced by all remedies available under the law of this state.

(c) If the contesting party does not establish a defense under subsection (a) to the validity or enforcement of the order, the registering tribunal shall issue an order confirming the order.]

  

[454.966. Confirmation of a registered order, whether by operation of law or after notice and hearing, precludes further contest of the order with respect to any matter that could have been asserted at the time of registration.]

  

[454.968. A party or support enforcement agency seeking to modify, or to modify and enforce, a child support order issued in another state shall register that order in this state in the same manner provided in sections 454.948 to 454.956 if the order has not been registered. A petition for modification may be filed at the same time as a request for registration, or later. The pleading must specify the grounds for modification. ]

 

[454.971. A tribunal of this state may enforce a child support order of another state registered for purposes of modification, in the same manner as if the order had been issued by a tribunal of this state, but the registered order may be modified only if the requirements of section 454.973 have been met.]

  

[454.973. (a) After a child support order issued in another state has been registered in this state, unless the provisions of section 454.978 apply, the responding tribunal of this state may modify that order only if, after notice and hearing, it finds that:

(1) the following requirements are met:

(i) the child, the individual obligee, and the obligor do not reside in the issuing state;

(ii) a petitioner who is a nonresident of this state seeks modification; and

(iii) the respondent is subject to the personal jurisdiction of the tribunal of this state; or

(2) an individual party or the child is subject to the personal jurisdiction of the tribunal and all of the individual parties have filed a written consent in the issuing tribunal providing that a tribunal of this state may modify the support order and assume continuing, exclusive jurisdiction over the order. However, if the issuing state is a foreign jurisdiction which has not enacted the Uniform Interstate Family Support Act, as amended, the written consent of the individual party residing in this state is not required for the tribunal to assume jurisdiction to modify the child support order.

(b) Modification of a registered child support order is subject to the same requirements, procedures, and defenses that apply to the modification of an order issued by a tribunal of this state and the order may be enforced and satisfied in the same manner.

(c) A tribunal of this state may not modify any aspect of a child support order that may not be modified under the law of the issuing state. If two or more tribunals have issued child support orders for the same obligor and child, the order that is controlling and must be recognized under the provisions of section 454.871 establishes the nonmodifiable aspects of the support order.

(d) On issuance of an order modifying a child support order issued in another state, a tribunal of this state becomes the tribunal of continuing, exclusive jurisdiction.]

  

[454.976. A tribunal of this state shall recognize a modification of its earlier child support order by a tribunal of another state which assumed jurisdiction pursuant to sections 454.850 to 454.997 or a law substantially similar to sections 454.850 to 454.997 and, upon request, except as otherwise provided in sections 454.850 to 454.997 shall:

(1) enforce the order that was modified only as to amounts accruing before the modification;

(2) enforce only nonmodifiable aspects of that order;

(3) provide other appropriate relief only for violations of that order which occurred before the effective date of the modification; and

(4) recognize the modifying order of the other state, upon registration, for the purpose of enforcement.]

  

[454.978. (a) If all of the individual parties reside in this state and the child does not reside in the issuing state, a tribunal of this state has jurisdiction to enforce and to modify the issuing state's child support order in a proceeding to register that order.

(b) A tribunal of this state exercising jurisdiction as provided in this section shall apply the provisions of sections 454.850 to 454.877 and sections 454.948 to 454.981 to the enforcement or modification proceeding. Sections 454.880 to 454.946 and sections 454.983 to 454.989 do not apply and the tribunal shall apply the procedural and substantive law of this state.]

  

[454.981. Within thirty days after issuance of a modified child support order, the party obtaining the modification shall file a certified copy of the order with the issuing tribunal which had continuing, exclusive jurisdiction over the earlier order, and in each tribunal in which the party knows that earlier order has been registered. Failure of the party obtaining the order to file a certified copy as required subjects that party to appropriate sanctions by a tribunal in which the issue of failure to file arises, but that failure has no effect on the validity or enforceability of the modified order of the new tribunal of continuing, exclusive jurisdiction.]

  

[454.983. (a) A tribunal of this state may serve as an initiating or responding tribunal in a proceeding brought under sections 454.850 to 454.997 or a law or procedure substantially similar to sections 454.850 to 454.997, or a law or procedure substantially similar to the uniform reciprocal enforcement of support act, or the revised uniform reciprocal enforcement of support act to determine that the petitioner is a parent of a particular child or to determine that a respondent is a parent of that child.

(b) In a proceeding to determine parentage, a responding tribunal of this state shall apply the procedural and substantive law of this state and the rules of this state on choice of law.]

  

[454.986. (a) For purposes of this article, "governor" includes an individual performing the functions of governor or the executive authority of a state covered by sections 454.850 to 454.997.

(b) The governor of this state may:

(1) demand that the governor of another state surrender an individual found in the other state who is charged criminally in this state with having failed to provide for the support of an obligee; or

(2) on the demand by the governor of another state, surrender an individual found in this state who is charged criminally in the other state with having failed to provide for the support of an obligee.

(c) A provision for extradition of individuals not inconsistent with sections 454.850 to 454.997, applies to the demand even if the individual whose surrender is demanded was not in the demanding state when the crime was allegedly committed and has not fled therefrom.]

  

[454.989. (a) Before making demand that the governor of another state surrender an individual charged criminally in this state with having failed to provide for the support of an obligee, the governor of this state may require a prosecutor of this state to demonstrate that at least sixty days previously the obligee had initiated proceedings for support pursuant to sections 454.850 to 454.997 or that the proceeding would be of no avail.

(b) If, under sections 454.850 to 454.997 or a law substantially similar to sections 454.850 to 454.997, the uniform reciprocal enforcement of support act, or the revised uniform reciprocal enforcement of support act, the governor of another state makes a demand that the governor of this state surrender an individual charged criminally in that state with having failed to provide for the support of a child or other individual to whom a duty of support is owed, the governor may require a prosecutor to investigate the demand and report whether a proceeding for support has been initiated or would be effective. If it appears that a proceeding would be effective but has not been initiated, the governor may delay honoring the demand for a reasonable time to permit the initiation of a proceeding.

(c) If a proceeding for support has been initiated and the individual whose rendition is demanded prevails, the governor may decline to honor the demand. If the petitioner prevails and the individual whose rendition is demanded is subject to a support order, the governor may decline to honor the demand if the individual is complying with the support order.]

  

[454.991. Sections 454.850 to 454.997 shall be applied and construed to effectuate its general purpose to make uniform the law with respect to the subject of sections 454.850 to 454.997 among states enacting it.]

  

[454.993. Sections 454.850 to 454.997 may be cited as the "Uniform Interstate Family Support Act".]

  

[454.995. If any provision of sections 454.850 to 454.997 or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the invalidity does not affect other provisions or applications of sections 454.850 to 454.997, which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of 454.850 to 454.997 are severable.]

  

[454.999. The provisions of sections 210.822 and 210.834, RSMo, shall apply to a proceeding under sections 454.850 to 454.997, but no other provisions of sections 210.817 through 210.852, RSMo, shall apply.]


            Section B. Section A of this act shall become effective upon ratification by the United States Congress of the Convention signed by the United States at the Hague, Netherlands on November 23, 2007.